Life Sciences and Medicine 

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Some applications of cluster analysis in the Life Sciences and Medicine are as follows:

Anthropologists have clustered anthropometrical data, to reveal genetic differences between ancestral human races and help reconstruct their evolution.

Biochemists have clustered the amino acid composition of proteins and genes, to explain the evolutionary sequences of mutations originating new species.

Botanists have clustered vegetation samples, to describe the ecology of natural plant communities and indicate areas for agricultural development or conservation and methods for prevention of soil erosion.  Mapping example here.

Clinical Psychologists have clustered extreme social behavioral patterns to identify psychological syndromes associated with autism.

Cytologists have clustered blood samples, to define blood groups and plasma types and develop methods of testing for abnormal cells.

Doctors have clustered liver and renal disease syndromes; infant brain malfunctions; psychological stages of the critically ill; and patterns in the evolution of epidemics.

Entomologists have clustered mosquitoes, bees and crustaceans, to measure the differences between species and define their taxonomies.

Microbiologists have clustered bacterial strains, to improve the existing taxonomies, identify the emergence of new viruses and help develop protective vaccines.

Palaeontologists have clustered fossils, to measure their phonetic relationships and construct evolutionary theories.

Psychiatrists have clustered symptoms in psychopathology, to help identify syndromes of psychiatric disorders and aid the development of treatments.